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Zaporizhia.  Pages of History.

Ukraine   is a large European country. It is a sovereign state with long and glorious history.The life-story of my native city Zaporizhia is a part of  Ukrainian history.

The city is situated in the south-eastern part of Ukraine. And stretches for more than 30 km.  along the Dnipro  River. The name of the city means ‘behind the rapids’. There were huge stonerapids on the Dnipro River near the place of  the city location.
The amount of population in   modern Z. is about 1 mln. people. Many nationalities live here. People are friendly and hospitable.

The history of Z. territory is rich in events. It had been inhabited by people from time  immemorial. The city is located on the ancient trade route “from the Varangians to the Greeks”.
In the 9th – 12th centuries the territory was populated by the Slavs. The majority of them left in the 13th century in order to escape the Tatar-Mongol yoke. By the end of the 15th  century Zaporizhia Cossacks settled here. The word  ‘Cossack’ means ‘a free man’. Cossack  units developed  into a regular Ukrainian army. They founded a military republic “Zaporiz’ka Sich “ with its own laws and traditions. Sich Gates, the Black Rock, Sovutyn Rock, Sagaidachny natural boundry, Cossack Well, Nenasytets Rapids are the landmarks of our history. The Zap.Sich was the mighty force of the Ukrainian people in the struggle against foreign invaders.

During the Russian-Turkish  War (1768-1774) it was important for Russia to strengthen its southern borders. According to the order  of the Russian Empress Catherine II seven fortresses were built in the Dnipro  downstream. One of the was founded in 1770 in the mouth of the Mokra  Moskovka  River. It was called Alexandrovskaya after the Russian Army commander Prince Alexander Golitsyn. Later the Dnipro Fortification Line lost its military significance. On the site of the fort a settlement came into being. The settlement preserved the name Alexandrovsk. The city got it’s present name Zaporizhia only in 1921.

The development of the town was promoted by the industrial revolution of the 20th
century. The Dniprohes and the numerous plants were built here. On October10, 1932  the  Hydroelectric power station was put into operation.  Zaporizhia became an important economic center. The Dniprohes  Museum is visited by many tourists every year.

Our Regional Local Lore Museum and the State Historical and Cultural Reserve Khortytsia   are rich in historical exhibits. They are silent witnesses of the past.
If you are interested in the history of the city you shouldn’t miss the chance to visit the museums.

Kyiv,  the capital of Ukraine, has the population of nearly 3 million inhabitants and covers over 43 km from east to west and 42 km from north to south.
According to historical literature, Kyiv was founded by three brothers Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv, and their sister Lybid. The city was named after Kyi, the eldest brother. The monu­ment erected in their honor, stands on the bank of the River Dnipro.
In the late 6th and early 7th century the first fortifica­tion appeared in the northern section of Old Kyiv Hill. While the court of the princes was located on the hills of Kyiv, the lower part of the city, known as Podil, developed into a busy trading district.

With the establishment of Kyivan Rus (the 9th century), Kyiv became its capital.
Prince Volodymyr the Great (980—1015) expanded the city. Kyivan Rus was at its zenith under the rule of Prince Iaroslav the Wise (1036—54). Monasteries were established and developed into centers of education. Close to 400 churches were built, the most famous of which, St. Sofia Cathedral (1037) has survived to this day. The first library was founded on the grounds of the cathedral.
Today, Kyiv is one of the great, ancient European cities, rich with historic monuments of art and architecture. It is a political, scientific, cultural, sports and industrial center of modern Ukraine.
Kyiv is a major industrial center that includes companies specializing in electronics, engineering, aviation, food and chemical production, etc. Kyiv’s economic development has been enriched by its advantageous location along the Dnipro River, which links Kyiv to the Black Sea.
It has many hotels, cafes and restaurants with Ukrainian, European, American and Eastern cuisine to accommodate tour­ists and business persons. Modern stadiums, tennis courts swimming pools and gyms are available. If you visit Kyiv in late May, you will witness a beautiful festival — «The Days of Kyiv ».

Climate and Weather in Ukraine.
    The climate of any country is determined by its geographical position. Ukraine lies in the south -eastern part of Central Europe. Its location is rather far from the Atlantic Ocean and close to the large continent of Asia. So, in general, the climate of Ukraine is temperately continental. The characteristic features of the climate are four seasons, annual snowfalls, occasional rainfalls and winds.

    The mountains of Ukraine - the Carpathian Mountains and the Crimean Mountains – influence the weather and the climate of the country. The Crimean Mountains protect the southern coast of the Crimea from the bitter steppe winds and cold Arctic air. So, the climate on the southern coast of the Crimea is subtropical. The Carpathians, in the western part of Ukraine, is the wettest place in the country. Rainfalls, brought by the Atlantic winds, are very often here. The Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the south of the country make the climate of this region mild and warm.

    Zaporizhia region is situated in the south of Ukraine. It is a moderate climatic zone with dry steppe winds. Summers are dry and hot. The warmest month is July with the record high temperature 40 degrees above zero. Winters in the region are usually cold. The coldest month is January with the average temperature 10-15 degrees below zero. Precipitations (rain or snow) are often in autumn, winter and spring. They say the climate is getting milder with every coming year. It depends on many reasons, mainly on the global warming on the planet.
    In conclusion, I must say, that the climate of the region is favourable for agriculture, gardening and farming. The southern part of Zaporizhia region, which lies on the Azov coast, is good for recreation and tourism.

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