Holidays and Celebrations in Great Britain.
1. Public Holidays = ”Bank Holidays”,when banks,offices and schools are closed:
· Christmas Day(Dec.25),Boxing Day(Dec.26);
· New Year’s Day(Dec.31-Jan.1),Hogmaney in Scotland(Dec.31-Jan.1);
· Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday;
· Spring Bank Holiday (last Monday in June or 1st Monday in July);
· Late Summer Bank Holiday(last Monday In August or 1st Monday in July).
2. Religious Holidays: Patron Saint’s Day.
- St.George’s Day (April, 23)-England,
- St.David’s Day(March,1)-Wales,
- St.Andrew’s Day(Nov.30)- Scotland,
- St.Patric’s Day(March,17)-Ireland.
- St.Valentine’s Day(Feb.14); Pencakes Day,Shrove Tuesday(Tuesday before 40-days’ Easter Lent)
- Mother’s Day(March,4th Sunday); April Fools’Day(Apr.1); May Spring Festival.
- Queen’s Official Birhday(June); Farther’s Day(3rd Sunday in June).
- Hallowe’en(Oct.31), Bonfire Night(Guy Fawkes Night-Nov.5);
- Remembrance Day =Poppy Day (Sunday in November), before Armistice Day(Nov.11).
GreenwichGreenwich = “green village”- is one of 32 London Boroughs in the SE of London.
Places of interest:
The Old Royal Observatory (1676). A brass strip of Zero Meridian (longitude 0) runs through the courtyard.
Greenwich Park (1427).
The National Maritime Museum (founded in1934)-shows British sailing history. Special galleries are devoted to Admiral Nelson and Captain James Cook.
Cutty Sark (launched in1869) – a tea ‘clipper’, brought tea from China and wool from Australia. Stands in dry dock in Greenwich since 1954.
The Royal Palace of Placentia (15th century) – a birthplace of Tudor Family, Henry VIII, Elizabeth Rebuilt by Christopher Wren. Later –Royal Naval Hospital, Royal Naval College, University of Greenwich, the Painted Hall.
The Queen’s House (1616-1638) – a classical style building by architect Inigo Jones.The Millennium Dome (2000)-a building for Exhibition “Millennium Experience”.
Periods of British History.
· Before 6th B.C. Pre-Celtic Period. Iberians. Stonehenge in Salisbury Plain in Southwest England.
· 6th B.C.-3rd B.C. Celtic Period. Druidism, runes. Iron Age.
· 1st B.C.-5th A.D. Roman Period. Hadrian’s Wall between England and Scotland.
· 5th A.D.-11th A.D. Anglo-Saxon Period. King Alfred the Great, Danish Kings, Edward the Confessor.
· 11th-12th centuries. Norman Period. 1066 William the Conqueror, battle at Hastings (14.10.1066).
· 12th-14th centuries. Plantagenet Period. Richard I the Lion-Heart, John Lackland, the Magna Carta (1215) the Hundred Years’ War(1337-1453).
· 14th-15th centuries. Lancaster and York Period. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453), the War of Roses (1455-1485).
· 15th-17th centuries. Tudor Period . Absolute Monarchy. Henry YII, Henry YIII, Queen Elizabeth I.
· 17th-18th centuries. Stuart Period. James I, Charles I, the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Republic (1649-1660), Restoration of Monarchy.
· 18th-20th centuries. Hanover Period. Queen Victoria (reigned 64 years, the age of power and prosperity).
20th-modern time Windsor Period. Queen Elizabeth II is reigning since 1952.
Places of Interest in London.
I’m so glad that you are going to visit London. It is the capital of the United Kingdom. There are a lot of historical places of interest. They are worth visiting. Don’t miss the chance to visit Trafalgar Square, Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London and Buckingham Palace.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of London. You can see Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square. The Square is often used for mass meetings and demonstrations.
Westminster Abbey is the historic building in London. It is a big and beautiful church which was founded in the 11th century. Many famous people of Great Britain are buried in Westminster Abbey.
The Tower of London is the most famous of all historical buildings in London. It was built in the 11th century. In the past the Tower of London was a palace, a state prison and now it is a museum.
Buckingham Palace is the residence of Queen Elizabeth II. It dates back to the 19th century. Tourists like to watch the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in front of Buckingham Palace. The Palace is partially open to the public.